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Metallurgy is the material science that studies the physical and chemical behaviors of the metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are used to make metal alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components through thermal and forming processes, so they can be used to meet the physical needs in developing products for consumers and manufacturers.


Metallography is the study of the physical structure and components of metals and other materials, typically using microscopy to study the microstructure and the effects of the thermal, forming, joining and other manufacturing processes used to make the metal or material fit for use in a product, or help in the examination on why a metal failed.

Metallurgical Analysis:

Metallurgical analysis includes the sample preparation methods used to prepare metal and other material samples for analysis; and the many test methods used to evaluate and document the metal and other material samples for suitability for use in its intended application.

Metallography and Metallurgical Analysis Services:

General Capabilities:

Metallurgical Analysis of Materials

Types of Analysis:

Comparative Analysis Between Materials
Comparative Analysis Between Processes
Competitor Analysis
Customer Requirements
Defect Analysis
Design Review
Failure Analysis
First Article Inspection
Heat Treat Response
Material Research
Process Development
Process Verification
Bond Analysis
Plating Thickness
Quality Assessment
Quality Control
Weld Evaluations
Reverse Engineering
Substantiation Analysis of Welds or other Processes
Third Party Verification
And Many More Applications

Materials Analyzed:

Alloy Steels
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Carbon Steels
Cast Irons
Cast Steels
Copper and Copper Alloys
Ductile Iron
Gray Iron
High Temperature Alloys
HSLA Steels
Lead and Lead Alloys

Nickel Alloys
Plastics and Rubbers
Plating and Coatings
Powder Metals
Printed Circuit Boards
Solder Joints
Stainless Steels
Super Alloys
Tool Steels
Wrought Metals
And Many other Materials

Metallographic Analysis –Sample Prep Methods:

Collection of Residues, Corrosion, Debris As-Needed
Cleaning of Sample as Needed
Cross-Sectioning the Area of Interest so It can be Mounted (Abrasive, Diamond, or Band Saws)
Dimensional Inspection As-Needed
Documentary Photographs As-Needed
Hardness Testing
Macroscopic or Stereomicroscopic Inspection
Microscopic Inspection
Macro Etching
Sectioning the Area of Interest
SEM Analysis As-Needed
Visual inspection
XRF analysis as-needed
And Many other Steps as Needed

Metallurgical Analysis – Testing Methods:

Braze Joints
Cable to Terminal Electrical Crimp Analysis by Cross-Section and Measurements
Case Depth
Chemical Analysis
Cracks, Secondary Cracks, and Microcracks Depths
Crimping and Staking Analysis
Diffusion Depth and Penetration
Dimensional Measurements
Effective Case Depth
Flow Lines
Fracture Surface Analysis
Grain Boundaries
Grain Direction
Grain Growth
Grain Size
Graphite Flake Type Analysis and Determination
Heat-Affected-Zone (HAZ)
Heat Treat Analysis
Image Analysis
Inclusions and Inclusion Ratings

Metallurgical Analysis and Evaluation
Microhardness Testing
Microstructure Analysis
Optical Microscopy
Oxides, Oxidation
Plating, Coating, or Layer Thickness Measurement
Re-Carburization, Carbon Restoration
Retained Austenite
Rolling Direction
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis
Solder Joint Analysis
Substantiation of Weld Dimension and
Surface Condition Analysis
Surface Hardening
Total Case Depth
Weld Penetration and Fusion and Dimensional Analysis
White Layer
Witness Line Determination
XRF Analysis
And Many More Specialized Tests

Replica & Replication Testing:

Bainite Presence
Bearing Races
Grain Size

Jet Engine Components
Microstructure Analysis
Tubing and Pipes

Hardness Testing Services:

Rockwell Hardness Scales: A, B, C, D, E, F, L, M and R
Superficial Rockwell Scales: R15N, R30N, R45N, R15T, R30T, and R45T
Portable Superficial Rockwell Hardness Testing: RC, RA, RB, HV (Vickers), RE, HB/3000, HB/500
Ultrasonic Hardness Testing: RC and HV (Vickers)
Brinell Hardness (BHN) (HB): 500Kg, 1500Kg, 3000Kg
Tele-Brinell Hardness Testing (BHN) (HB)

Knoop Microhardness: HK 50 grams to 500 grams
Vickers Microhardness: HV 50 grams to 500 grams

Durometer Hardness Testing of Plastics, Foams, and Rubbers – Scales: A, D,
Wallace Micro Durometer: IRHD

Comparison Hardness using Files

Sorting of Mixed Material